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What is the role of United Nations Security Council ?


What is the role of United Nations Security Council ?

What is the role of United Nations Security Council

No:1. The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It is the executive organ of the UN.

No:2. It has 15 members–five permanent and 10 non-permanent members.

No:3. The non-permanent members are elected by the UN General Assembly for a period of two years.

No:4. Its five permanent members or P-5 are: US, Russia, China, UK, and France.

No:5. The permanent members of the Security Council have been given the veto power.

No:6. It means any permanent member may stop the Council from taking any decision by casting its vote against the pending proposal on any substantive issue.

No:7. To decide whether a particular issue is a substantive issue or not is also a substantive matter.

No:8. Thus, the permanent members have two occasions to use their veto power one at the time of deciding whether it is a substantive issue or not and second at the time of deliberation on a particular matter about the course of action.

No:9. This is known as ‘Double Veto’. In non-substantive matters, the decisions of the Security Council are taken with the support of 9 members.

Functions and Role of the Security Council

The Security Council may take the following actions to maintain international peace and security or the threat to the same :

No:1. Holding consultation and persuading nations to act in favor of peace.

No:2. Providing mediation and arbitration to solve disputes threatening international peace.

No:3. Imposing financial and diplomatic sanctions against the nation for ensuring international peace. Iran and North Korea are the recent cases where the UNSC has imposed economic sanctions.

No:4. As a final resort, the Security Council is authorized to take military action against the nations which are found guilty of a violation of peace. The UN does not have a regular military force. The forces of the UN are contributed by the member states. The Korean War 1950-53 and Gulf war 1991 are successful examples of UN military action. NATO and other forces have been used in Afghanistan and Libya under the mandate of the UN.

No:5. Military action is known as peace enforcement. Besides, the Security Council also undertakes peace-keeping activities in different parts of the world. The difference is that in peacekeeping operations, the security forces of the UN are authorized to use arms only in self-defense.

No:6. Besides, the UNSC also has some other functions with respect to elections of members to UN bodies, passing of the budget, amendment of Charter etc.

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